J1/J2 Scholar Status
J-1 professional/professor/scholar status are for individuals in the U.S. visiting as researchers, professors, and short-term scholars, under the authority of the Department of State (DOS) and a designated program sponsor. J-1 Exchange Visitor (Short-term Scholar, Professor, Researcher, or Specialist).
J-1 student Intern status allows students outside the United States to participate as an intern in the U.S. related to their degree objective they are pursuing at their home institution. The J-1 intern must be a full-time student in a degree seeking program outside the U.S.
Both categories require a DS-2019, which is a certificate of eligibility for exchange visitor status.
DS-2019 Applications: no earlier than 3 months in advance, but no later than 3 weeks prior to the status expiration date/start of employment